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Spatially Resolved Characterization

DuraMAT's existing spatially resolved characterization techniques include chemical composition (XRF), crystallographic structure (XRD), microstructure (AFM), surface properties (PES, KP), electrical transport (4-point probe), and optical properties (transmittance/reflectance, ellipsometry). All of them function as a position on a photovoltaic (PV) thin film.

The data analysis tools include:

  • Custom-written processing and visualization routines for user-assisted data processing
  • Data warehouse connections for data harvesting
  • Project-specific databases for data analysis and visualization, such as the High-Throughput Experimental Materials Database.

We also offer combinatorial thin-film deposition capabilities. For more information, see High-Throughput Experimental Approach Capabilities.

Core Objective

Fielded Module Forensics


National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)


We extend our high-throughput experimental, combinatorial capabilities to handle insulators—e.g. multifunctional coatings for anti-soiling, antireflection, etc.—and potentially metals, e.g. electrical connections such as solder bonds.


These resources are available to NREL scientists and external collaborators.


Rajbhandar, P.P.; Bikowski, A.; Perkins, J.D.; Dhakal, T.P.; Zakutayev, A. (2017). “Combinatorial sputtering of Ga-doped (Zn,Mg)O for contact applications in solar cells.” Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells. 159, 219-226.

Zakutayev, A.; Wunder, N.; Schwarting, M.; Perkins, J.D.; White, R.; Munch, K.; Tumas, W.; Phillips, C. (2018). “An open experimental database for exploring inorganic materials.

Scientific Data. 5: 180053.


To learn more about this capability, contact Andriy Zakutauyev.

A "Synthesis" image features a circular disc labeled "A/B" with three smaller discs above labeled "A," "O,N,S," and "B" that have arrows pointing to it. From it, an arrow points to "Characterization." The square "Characterization" image features a y and x axis that has arrows pointing to two small discs above it labeled "In" and "Out." From it, an arrow points to "Analysis." The "Analysis" image is a desktop computer. From it, an arrow points to "Synthesis."