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Scalable Packaging Materials for Roll-to-Roll Processed Thin Film Solar Cells

As a DuraMAT project, the Georgia Institute of Technology performs calcium corrosion testing on thin film photovoltaic (PV) solar cells to determine permeation properties through barriers and side permeation through adhesives. 

Georgia Tech has expertise in developing and characterizing thin film ultra-barriers for packaging solar cells. It also has expertise in measuring the mechanical adhesion—specifically characterizing the critical strain energy release rate—for a range of adhesives and encapsulants as a function of material aging.

Core Objective

Module Material Solutions


Georgia Institute of Technology


The testing is focused on flexible, thin film solar cells including those compatible with roll-to-roll processing. 


Available to external collaborators and U.S. Department of Energy laboratories.


Kim, Y.;  Bulusu, A.;  Giordano, A.;  Marder, S.; Dauskardt, R.;  Graham, S. (2012).“Experimental Study of Interfacial Fracture Toughness in a SiNx/PMMA Barrier Film.” ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces. Vol. 4, pp. 6711-6719.

Kim, N.; Potscavage, W.J.;  Sunaramoothi,  A.;  Henderson, C.;  Kippelen, B.;  Graham, S. (2012). “A Correlation Study Between Barrier Film Performance and Shelf-Lifetime of Encapsulated Organic Solar Cells,” Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells. Vol. 101, pp. 140-146.

Bulusu, A.;  Singh,  A.;  Wang, C.Y.;  Dindar, A.; Fuentes-Hernandez, C.;  Kim, H.;  Cullen, D.;   Kippelen, B.; Graham, S. (2015).“Engineering the Mechanical Properties of Ultrabarrier Films Grown by Atomic Lyaer Deposition for the Encapsulation of Printed Electronics.” Journal of Applied Physics. Vol. 118, pp. 085501.

Kim, H.;  Singh, A.; Wang, C.Y.; Fuentes-Hernandez, C.;  Kippelen, B.; Graham, S. (2016).“Experimental Investigation of Defect-Assisted and Intrinsic Water Vapor Permeation through Ultrabarrier Films.”  Review of Scientific Instruments. Vol. 87, pp. 033902.


To learn more about this project, contact Samuel Graham.

An image titled "Barrier Film and Adhesive Development" with three, 3D layers labeled: 3M Barrier Film, Barrier Adhesive, Ca Sample; two images labeled "High Throughput Testing": the first image shows a hand holding a devices, and the second images shows the device up close; and four images titled "Integration with Thin Film PV": the first three images show equipment in a lab, and the fourth image shows three, 3D layers labeled: 3M Barrier Film, Barrier Adhesive, Solar Cell Testing equipment in a lab "Which cell design is more reliable and why?": first one shows "Busbar offsets," two of them showing "Small or large cell radius," and the last one shows "Discontinuous busbars."